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APA 7th Edition Style Guide

Correctly cite and reference resources in APA (7th Edition) Style..

Referencing - Books / E-Books

Book or E-Book - Single Author

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Book title: Capitalise the first letter after colon [Italicise]. Publisher. DOI or URL (if available)

Loh, C. E. (2017). The space and practice of reading: A case study of reading and social class in Singapore. Routledge.

Blackburn, K. (2017). Education, industrialization and the end of empire in Singapore. Routledge.

World Health Organization. (2017). Handbook for the use of digital technologies to support tuberculosis medication adherence

  • If the author and publisher are both the same organisation, e.g. World Health Organization, omit the publisher.


Book or E-Book - Two Authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication)Book title: Capitalise the first letter after colon [Italicise]PublisherDOI or URL

Blackburn, K., & Wu, Z. L. (2019). Decolonizing the History curriculum in Malaysia and Singapore. Routledge.

Silver, R. E., Hu, G., & Iino, M. (2002). English language education in China, Japan, and Singapore. National Institute of Education.


Book or E-Book - Three or More Authors

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C(Year of publication)Book title: Capitalise the first letter after colon [Italicise]PublisherDOI or URL

O'Toole, J., Stinson, M., & Moore, T. (2009). Drama and curriculum: A giant at the door. Springer.


Book or E-Book - With Editor(s) and No Author(s)

Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Ed.). (Year of publication)Book title: Capitalise the first letter after colon [Italicise]PublisherDOI or URL

Leonard, W. R., & Crawford, M. H. (Ed.). (2002). Human biology of pastoral populations. Cambridge University Press.

  • If you are citing an authored book chapter from a book with editors, click on the "Book Chapter - (Books / E-Books)" tab above.
  • Use this format only when a book has only editors but no authors
  • Contributors listed in the book or chapter(s) are not authors as their roles do not pass the threshold of what is typically required for author/co-authorship  

Basic format for print books and ebooks​

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Chapter title: Capitalise first letter after colon. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.)Book title: Capitalise first letter after colon [Italicise] (edition, Volume, page number). Publisher. DOI or URL (when available)

Arzami Salim. (2009). Oral presentation and assessment: The assessor’s role in questioning. In A. D. Pillai & M. Ellis (Eds.), Project work: Exploring processes, practices and strategies (pp. 161–165). Prentice Hall.

Goh, J. W. P., Hairon, S., & Lim, S. Q. W. (2019). Understanding distributed leadership practices in the cultural context of Singapore schools. In S. Hairon & J. W. P. Goh (Eds.), Perspectives on school leadership in Asia Pacific context (pp. 11-30). Springer.

Fang, Y., Lee, C. K.-E., & Thalha, S. (2009). Lesson study in mathematics: Three cases from Singapore. In K. Y. Wong, P. Y. Lee, B. Kaur, P. Y. Foong, & S. F. Ng (Eds.), Series on mathematics education: Vol. 2. Mathematics education: The Singapore journey (pp. 104– 129). World Scientific.